What is a GEO?
“Geo” is short for Geological Inspection. Geo Inspections are done by Geologists who evaluates the risk, from a geological standpoint, of buying a home in escrow. Geologists rate risk on a scale of low, medium/average, or high.
I always recommend to get a Geological Inspection for hillside properties. Hillside properties have gravity working against them, so it is important to ensure that the geological conditions of the lot are stable. A house is only as good as the foundation it is built on, and a foundation is only as good as the ground it rests on top of.
If the property had a geological problem in the past like a Landslide, Slope Failure, Erosion, Creep, Collapsed Retaining wall, etc, these are expensive and can cost in the $100,000’s of dollars and could make the property unmarketable!
A GEO inspection protects you from buying a property with a known Geological defect.
GEO inspections have two parts:
(1) Site Visit: the geologist and visual inspection of the property.
(2) Research: the geologist reviews city records and reports including: building permits, previous soils tests, grading reports, historic landslide information, proximity to active faults, and geological bedrock survey maps.
At the end of the inspection, the geologist will write a report that summarizes all of their findings.
Geological Inspections do not include testing. The purpose of a GEO is to satisfy the buyer’s due diligence during escrow and not to be used for obtaining approval of building plans. No testing keeps cost down- a GEO inspection is 1/3 to 1/5 of the cost of a Soils test.
How do I tell if my property is Hillside?
You can usually tell just by looking around. Hillside properties are in the mountains, so if you see any big hills or slopes, you are probably in a hillside area.
Los Angeles has a special zoning designation for Hillside properties. You can look up the zoning information on the city’s zoning website ZIMAS. The main characteristic that defines a hillside property is slope.
The definition of a Slope (LABC 7003)
SLOPE. An inclined ground surface the inclination of which is expressed as a ratio of horizontal distance to vertical distance. Slope greater than 10% shall be considered as a sloping surface.
What does a GEO inspection Cover?
The GEO covers several different topics that relate to the hillside: Drainage, Grading, Soil/Bedrock, Seismicity, Landcaping, and Foundation
Controlling stormwater runoff is the most important thing to keep your hill safe. Good drainage also protects your foundation from deterioration. Los Angeles doesn’t get a ton of rain, but the occasional heavy rainstorm can dump 5 to 10 inches rather quickly, which can lead to landslides and slope failures if your property doesn’t have proper drainage.
Soil naturally absorbs water, so having some open areas on the lot that can absorb runoff and not all hardscape will help drainage. For excess water, the best place to drain is in the streets that are connected to the city’s stormwater system and empty into the ocean.
Sometimes on hillside lots, you can’t always drain to the street. If you can’t connect to the stormwater system, then an onsite drainage system such as a dispersion wall, sump pump, swale, or cross-lot drainage easement can be built to direct the runoff to an approved location.
It is illegal to send your stormwater runoff into the sewer system, which is a different system altogether. If everybody drained their storm water into the sewers, they would overflow. Storm surges can move 10 billion gallons of water in just 1 day. In addition, it is very costly to treat sewer water, whereas stormwater doesn’t need to be treated.
Grading is flattening the land by moving the topsoil. Hillsides are sloped. You need a flat pad to build on. Grading is the process of sculpting the lot to prepare it for building.
When you remove soil- this is called a “cut”. When you add soil- that is called a “fill”. Depending on the soil composition, sometimes you can use your cut from the same site as fill.
Fill is where you sometimes run into trouble. Prior to the enactment of the Grading Code in 1963, fill was not generally well compacted, which lead to an excessive amount of settlement, landslides, and erosion. If your lot has fill prior to 1963- be extra careful.
Just like you have setbacks for the front yard, backyard, and side yards, of your house- you have required setbacks from the hillside of your lot. There are two reasons for the hill setback- 1) the more flat land between the foundation and slope, the more bearing capacity of the soil and 2) if there is a rockfall or a mudslide you house has a better chance of being a safe distance away from it. The amount of the hill setback varies.
Geologists study rocks and dirt. When you start learning about Geology, it’s actually pretty cool! The first rocks on Earth formed about 4 billion years ago. Since that time the surface of the Earth has changed quite dramatically- and it’s still changing. Los Angeles is moving towards San Fransisco along the San Andreas Fault at the rate of a few inches each year which means that in about 15 million years these two cities will be neighbors!
Silt/Loam- Just the right amount of sand and clay and organic materials, basically dirt.
Clay- Clay absorbs water, and expands and contracts. Too much clay in the soil can create expansive soils.